74th AMENDMENT ACTBy Alagu Aishwarya
December 19, 2018
Being a fraternity of Architecture the responsibility doesn’t end within the internal spaces but also takes a major hand in the urbanization of a region or a locality rather a city which directly or indirectly gets in hand with the development of the country in a larger scale. In broader classification, India is a country with rapid urbanization. According to the Urban corridor, a city’s development is based on the constitution and the governance that it abides by.
“Urbanization is not about simply increasing the number of urban residents or expanding the area of cities. More importantly, it’s about a complete change from rural to urban style in terms of industry structure, employment, living environment, and social security.”
– Li Keqiang
India is a country with three spheres of governance – Central, Union, Local. The 73rd and the 74th constitutional amendment act gave recognition rather a vivid picture to the local governing bodies. They aimed at bridging the gap between the government and the governed bodies.
The 74th constitutional amendment act was initiated in the year 1992. The intention of the act was to govern the city more appropriately and have a proper communication between the governance and the government. It focused on creating committees in the local body inside the rural and urban areas. The act meant to have more participation between the people and the government in such a way that the people were involved in decision making by being a part of the happenings. (e.g:) Any irregularity happening in places the people would have direct participation and find a solution for the same along with the authorities. This would further help in framing better policies for the area.
The 73rd constitutional amendment act which is also known as the sister amendment act took a major hand in creating a stronger local body at rural and urban levels. The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment act created a revolution in re-framing the entire structure of Indian government.
The acts started changing rather led its perspective from the roots of the governance although it took decades to realize its benefits. The act changed rather upgraded the standard of the local bodies which eventually strengthened the zonal committees and therefore the entire governing structures. The governing hierarchy got its betterment from its roots which honors Abraham Lincoln’s words “government of the people, by the people, for the people”.
It has taken years to visualize the betterment on an urban scale today but initially, it created a lot of chaos in governance for the implementation of the upgraded hierarchy. The local committee was formed on the basis of present populations which categorized them automatically as the gram panchayat, Municipalities, Cooperation, etc. which introduced the local legislation into the governance hierarchy. Implementation of the 73rd and the 74th constitutional amendment act had various impacts on various states such as Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal, Delhi, etc.
This 74th constitutional amendment act renewed and upgraded the economic status of the people at their place in terms of elections, finance and authorities. The statistical data provides us a vivid picture of its impacts in various states. (e.g.) Chandigarh.
The city Chandigarh is known for its grid planning by Le Corbusier which is one among the most efficient city planning till date. It is one among the cleanest city Of India and is also popularly addressed as the “City Beautiful”. The city is currently a union territory and the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana. It owns a population of about 9,00,000 and one among the rapidly growing cities in India. Due to the rapid increase of population, the governance of the city becomes difficult even though it is the well-planned city till date.
The urban development of a city marks with the functioning of civic functions such as water supply, sanitation, transportation, institutions, etc. The institutional responsibility of a city relies on the Municipal Corporation which is against the aim of 74th constitutional amendment act that was initiated in the year 1992. The city functions were according to the Municipal Corporation which leads in the rapid increase in unemployment which directly affected its economic status. It became a serious issue which led a tug between the Municipal Corporation and the administration of Chandigarh.
The aspects of the Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh gives us a vivid picture of the city management process. The transport department and water supply which counts the most on the city’s economy had a big fail which signifies the poor empowerment to the local bodies.
The main issue that created the chaos in the city of Chandigarh is that the responsibilities are overlapping due to the existence of multiple agencies. Since it is one among the most populated cities in India, the people of Chandigarh own the most number of vehicle per capita. The parking lots are managed by the private sectors that are poorly maintained and overcharged for public services. It brings us a note that the highest number of malpractice in the parking lots is been filed in the Chandigarh city which is against the public welfares.
The rapid way to draw the economy of Chandigarh high is to remove the roadblocks and clear the drawbacks of the cities transport blocks as the transportation of a city decides its growth rate.